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Russia and the World Communitys Respond to a Challenge of Instability of Economic and Legal Systems Materials of the International Scientific-practical Conference ...

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In the EU the necessity test also includes proportionality stricto sensu, whereas it is less clear that this is part of WTO Law. 162 Proportionality stricto sensu means that even if there is no less restrictive measure, a national measure may be set aside if it is disproportionate to the end it serves. Even though this last part of the proportionality test is part of EU law, it has played a very minor role and therefore this potential difference does not seem important.

See e.g. Joined Cases 110-111/78, Van Wesemael [1979] ECR 35, para. 28.

For a comparison of the approach to equivalence in the two systems, see G. de Brca, Unpacking the Concept of Discrimination in the EC and the WTO in C. Barnard and J. Scott (eds.), The Law of The Single European Market (Hart Publishing, 2002), pp. 181-194.

See G/SPS/19.

The Commission has found that there is a lack of awareness of the consequences of the mutual recognition principle, both among economic operators and national administrators, and it has tried to solve this problem by issuing non-binding communications; see OJ 2003 C 265/2. This Communication was apparently not sufficient to ensure the correct application of mutual recognition and as a result Regulation (EC) No 764/2008 laying down procedures relating to the application of certain national technical rules to products lawfully marketed in another Member State and repealing Decision No 3052/95/EC, was adopted. For an analysis of this Regulation see K. E.

Srensen, Non-harmonized technical regulations and the free movement of goods, European Business Law Review, 1 (2012).

For an account of EU law see E. Eilis (ed.), The Principle of Proportionality in the Laws of Europe (Hart Publishing, 1999); and Snell, Goods and Services, pp. 194-218. For WTO law see the note by the Secretariat entitled Necessity Tests in the WTO; G. Kapiterian, A Critique of the WTO Jurisprudence on Necessity, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 59 (2010), 89-127; and the Appellate Bodys observations in WT/DS332/AB/R, Brazil Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres, adopted 3 December 2007. For a comparison of the two tests see Ortino, Basic Legal Instruments, pp. 387-474; and T. Periin, Free Movement of Goods and Limits or Regulatory Autonomy in the EU and WTO (Asser Press, 2008).

See the discussion in Ortino, Basic Legal Instruments, pp. 464-369; and A. Desmedt, Proportionality in WTO Law, Journal of International Economic Law, 4 no. 3 (2001), 441-480, at 459-460.

Even though on the surface the tests are very similar, the execution of the test seems to be carried out differently under WTO law and under EU law. The main difference is that the Court seems to be freer in its assessment, especially of the necessity test. The Court can, on its own initiative, point to alternative ways of achieving the desired results. Thus the proportionality test is probably the most difficult and unpredictable element in the review of non-discriminatory restrictions in the EU. In contrast it seems that the WTO decisions rely more on the evidence presented by the parties in each case, and also seem less inclined to set aside the policy choices made by the Members. The reason for this difference is partly a difference in judicial style, but it also seems to be due to the fact that there is a lack of common culture and history among the WTO Members, whereas it is easier to find a common standard in the EU. 5. Concluding remarks It is clear that reviews of non-discriminatory restrictions differ substantially between the EU and the WTO. In the EU very bold steps have been taken to subject non-discriminatory restrictions to review, whereas in the WTO the approach has been very cautious, only subjecting selected types of restrictions to review. However the development in the EU has been reversed, and thus the two systems have moved closer in their approaches. It nevertheless seems that the bold approach initially taken by the Court has made the discussion of which rules should be subject to review a much more complex issue in the EU than in the WTO. Another difference is that in the EU the Court has played a very important role in this development, whereas in the WTO most steps have been taken by the Members (with a few exceptions).

Even though the approach and the results are very different, it is clear that many of the same techniques have been used both in selecting which restrictions should be reviewed, and in how these restrictions should be reviewed. Also, many of the same concerns about the consequences of reviewing nondiscriminatory restrictions have been expressed in the two systems. In that sense the two systems can be compared, and experiences learnt in one system may be valuable to the other system. However there are several reasons why it cannot be expected that the two systems will develop in the same direction. First, the Courts very important role in this area seems unlikely to be copied by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body. Second, the level of the ambitions of the two trading systems are very different in this area, which can primarily be ascribed to the fact that in the EU the Member States have delegated much more competence to the EU. In the EU it is possible to link a review to harmonisation, whereas this is much more difficult in the WTO.

See Kapiterian, A Critique of the WTO Jurisprudence, 98; and Wouters and Coopens, GATS and domestic Regulation, p. 211.



La zone euro a t violemment secoue par la crise financire des subprimes venue des USA en 2008 : 4% du PIB en 2009 en moyenne puis croissance molle 2% en 2012 (aprs une croissance de lordre de 4 ou 5% depuis le 21me sicle). Avec les plans de relance anticrise la dette publique a bondi aux alentours de 70/80% du PIB selon les pays (voire 150% Grce ou 120% Italie) et elle continue de monter alors que le trait de Maastricht de 1992 (qui a prpar le passage leuro) avait impos un maximum de 60%. Dune manire trs classique cette crise sest propage en Europe (et plus faiblement au Japon) par les relations financires (difficults des banques et institutions financires qui avaient achet des subprimes titriss) et commerciales (effondrement des importations amricaines qui jouaient un rle moteur dans lconomie mondiale. Elle a galement touch la Chine, et la Russie (par le biais du renversement des prix du ptrole en 2009/10).

Cependant cette crise nest pas du tout un simple pisode spculatif comme lconomie mondiale en a connu avec le krach des bourses du sud-est asiatique en 1997 ou bien celui des valeurs boursires occidentales lies linformatique (bulle internet) en 2000/03. Par son ampleur -elle a entran des faillites retentissantes comme celles de la banque Lehman Brothers par exemple- on a commenc craindre le retour dune crise du style de 1929. Cependant, comme lavait expliqu ds 1967 lconomiste amricain JK Galbraith, le systme bancaire actuel est concentr et agit de concert maintenant pour grer les problmes financiers internationaux. Dautre part, fort heureusement pour le monde occidental, le nouveau prsident (depuis 2006) du Federal Reserve Board, Ben Bernanke, est un spcialiste de cette priode de la crise de 1929. Il en a tir la leon quil fallait intervenir pour aider les banques. De mme lEtat amricain (Obama plus que Bush) a rejet sa politique ultralibrale pour venir en aide aux secteurs conomiques en difficult et lEurope a fait pareil.

Cest ainsi que lon a pu viter le scnario catastrophe de lavant-guerre de 39/45 : effondrement industriel, ruine du commerce international, monte du protectionnisme, explosion du chmage et tentation dun vote politique pour des rgimes extrmistes. En 2009 lOCDE annonait mme une sortie de crise pour 2010 et les experts financiers galement se sont montrs optimistes. Aujourdhui en 2012 les difficults europennes sont toujours l avec une crise de la dette grecque en prime. LAllemagne fait figure de bon lve et reste note AAA, quelle erreur dapprciation ! Certes la productivit allemande est bonne, ses points forts dans les machines-outils et la chimie sont impressionnants, son maillage de PME, li un excellent systme de formation professionnelle, fait sa force lexportation, mais son degr dendettement ( 80% du PIB) est identique celui de la France, la pauvret y explose (un allemand sur 7 aujourdhui), le dsinvestissement public y obre gravement le futur (baisse drastique au dtriment de la sant publique, de lenseignement, de larme notamment) et le chmage reste masqu par lobligation faite aux chmeurs daccepter des mini-jobs sous-pays, par une baisse dmographique inquitante qui soulage momentanment le march du travail et par un manque de crches et dquipements publics qui fait de lAllemagne la championne du travail des femmes temps partiel (pratiquement la moiti). Le pays fait penser un fou qui aurait dcid de maigrir en ne mangeant plus Je crois que tous ces grands professionnels de la conjoncture se trompent lourdement et je ne suis pas le seul penser quils ont le nez dans le guidon.

Non pas que notre modle de dveloppement me paraisse condamn : au contraire le capitalisme a devant lui un avenir prometteur. Les bases dune nouvelle priode longue de forte croissance sont l : il sagit de la 3me rvolution industrielle, ce que lon appelle aussi la croissance verte ou durable (cest--dire qui tient compte de lenvironnement). Dj apparaissent les nouveaux marchs de la voiture lectrique, du tourisme de masse, des parcs dattraction, du btiment utilisant nergie solaire et nouveaux matriaux respirants, de lagriculture intgrant le gnie gntique, des innovations du monde de la communication et de limage (rvolution de linfographie notamment), des robots industriels et mnagers, des jeux lectroniques, crans plats haute dfinition (qui prfigurent la socit des loisirs), etc. Une nouvelle socit postindustrielle se dessine trs clairement et cest dans cette socit que vivront les jeunes gnrations actuelles qui sont dsespres par labsence de perspectives que leurs offrent des marchs du travail totalement bloqus.

Ce blocage nest pas seulement d la faiblesse de la croissance conomique mais galement laveuglement idologique du politiquement correct : les pays europens ont dcrt au sommet de Lisbonne de 2000 que la dcennie venir verrait monter lEurope de la connaissance et sacharnent actuellement sortir des bataillons de BAC + 5 dont personne na besoin ! Le cinma sest empar du sujet avec le film italien Generazione mille euro qui montre comment les jeunes docteurs de luniversit ne trouvent du boulot que chez Mac Donalds.



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