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Kononova, V.V. Ponamareva and L.N. Aleksandrova directed creative groups, where detailed researches of soil organic matter were performed. The first two women were the followers of Professor I.V. Tjurin. They discussed the scientific problems and engaged in competitions with each other contributing to development of science. All three women-scientists succeeded in science, founded personal schools of thoughts and were awarded.

A constellation of remarkable women-scientists as N.I. Bazilevich, A.A. Shtina, Ye.M. Samoylova, A.A. Titlianova, T.L. Bystritskaya, T.I. Yevdokimova, B.R. Striganova, L.A. Grishina, L.I. Domracheva, T.G. and N.G. Dobrovolskie, G.V. Kovaleva, N.Yu.

Koval'skaya, G.K. Yevdokimova, N.V. Lukina and many other worked and are still working in a sphere of soil biology. Especially many outstanding researchers are in a sphere of soil microbiology. These are N.N. Sushkina (first women-professor of microbiology in the Moscow State University), E.A. Domracheva, V.P. Firsova, A.A. Shtina, T.V. Aristovskaya, A.V. Rybalkina, I.P. Bab'eva, T.G. Mirchin, G.M. Zenova, O.E. Marfenova, L.M. Polyanskaya and other. Many of them developed new lines and formed personal schools of thoughts.

Agrochemistry is developed mainly by pains of such women-scientists as E.I.

Shilova, V.V. Tserling, A.V. Koloskova, O.A. Biryukova, I.E. Koroleva, T.V. Kuznetsova, E.K. Kruglova, T.N. Kulakovskaya, A.Kh. Kulikova, D.M. Kheifets (Shtrausberg), T.P. Slavina, S.F. Korableva, L.S. Travnikova, V.V. Chuprova, I.B. Eliseeva, L.I. Inisheva, V.N.

Kreshtapova, I.N. Lozanovskaya, Z.A. Sinkevich, S.F. Spitsina, O.I. Antonova, T.A. Titova, T.A. Avdeeva and many other.

I.I. Feofarova, E.A. Yarilova, E.I. Parfenovf were at the beginnings of micromorphological researches in the country. Many women worked and are working currently in a sphere of soil mineralogy and micromorphology. These are M.M. Shushkevich, L.S. Travnikova, N.G. Minashina, A.I. Romashkevich, T.D. Morozova, T.A. Sokolova, G.V. Rusanova, T.V.

Tursina, E.B. Skvortsova, N.E. Rubilina, N.P. Chizhikova, Zh.N. Matviishina, M.I. Gerasimova, T.S. Zvereva, M.P. Verba.

The following remarkable women-scientists developed and are still developing soil chemistry: Ye.A. Domracheva, E.V. Arinushkina, E.I. Shilova, L.A. Vorob'eva, T.A. Sokolova, G.V. Motuzova, Ya.M. Ammosova, V.I. Roslikova, E.G. Nechaeva, L.N. Aleksandrova, M.D. Rydalevskaya, L.K. Sadovnikova, T.A. Sokolova. Geochemistry of soils and landscapes was intensively developed in the works of M.A. Glazovskaya, N.P. Solntseva, V.D. Vasil'evskaya, A.I. Gagarina, E.G. Nechaeva and other.

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Paleopedology especially as for studying the Pleistocene soils was traditionally female sphere. The following women should be mentioned here: N.A. Sirenko, T.D. Morozova, N.I. Glushankova, M.I. Dergacheva, Zh.N. Matviishina, G.A. Vorob'eva, S.A. Sycheva, L.A.

Gugalinskaya. Most of them performed their researches together with men-geologists or paleogeographers. For example N.A. Sirenko worked together with M.F. Veklich and T.D.

Morozova with A.A. Velichko et.al.

Male spheres of soil science, which require long researches in the Extreme North, or mountain regions were also developed by women. In spite difficulties and asperity of expedition life, women's passion for travels is apparently none less than that is of men (at any case it is right for women involved in studying the soil geography).

Many of the most famous women contributed significantly to development of soil genesis and geography. These are B.A. Bal'ts, E.N. Ivanova, O.N. Mikhaylovskaya, N.B.

Vernander, K.I. Trofimenko, E.V. Lobova, M.N. Pershina, N.N. Dzens-Litovskaya, O.A.

Polyntseva, A.V. Baranovskaya, N.I. Bazilevich, M.A. Glazovskaya, N.A. Nogina, I.N.

Skrytnikova, E.A. Afanas'yeva, A.V. Koloskova, I.V. Zaboeva, L.G. Yelovskaya, V.V. Ponamarieva, T.A. Romanova, A.I. Romashkevich, V.P. Firsova, A.A. Grishina, T.L. Bystritskaya, T.V. Yevdokimova, E.M. Samoylova, N.A. Karavaeva, I.I. Lebedeva, V.D. Vasil'evskaya, M.I. Gerasimova, E.I. Pankova, I.S. Urusevskaya, E.G. Nechaeva and many other. Geographers are especially abundant among the first and the second generations of the women-pedologists.

Soil classification and mapping is closely related with soil geography and genesis.

This sphere is also greatly represented by women. For example, these are Z.Ju. Shokal'skaya, Ye.N. Ivanova, Ye.B. Lobova, M.A. Glazovskaya, N.A. Nogina, I.A. Zaboyeva, I.I. Lebedeva, V.D. Vasilevskaya, N.B. Vernander, M.I. Gerasimova, A.A. Yerokhina, I.V.

Zaboyeva, N.A. Karavaeva, E.I. Pankova, L.P. Rubtsova, M.S. Simakova.

Even such sphere as soil improvement that requires technical knowledge is intensively developed by women. These are L.P. Beliakova, A.P. Biryukova, T.N. Kulakovskaya, I.N. Skrynnikova, N.I. Bazilevich, A.F. Vadyunina, N.B. Vernander, L.V. Yeterevskaya, E.S. Migunova, N.G. Minashina, A.V. Novikova, A.M. Aleksandrova, T.A. Romanova, I.B. Archegova, L.I. Inisheva, I.N. Lyubimova, N.P. Solntseva, I.F. Yurchenko, L.M. Burlakova and other.

Many women worked over agropedology. These are A.P. Biryukova, L.M. Burlakova, V.P.

Vasil'ko, N.B. Vernander, A.V. Koloskova, A.I. Kuznetsova, G.F. Lebedeva, K.I.

Trofimenko, V.V. Chuprova. The following women should be mentioned among the researchers of soil physics and agrophysics: A.F. Vadyunina, V.N. Dimo, I.V. Kuznetsova, M.K.



Mel'nikova, N.A. Mikhaylova, S.M. Pakshina, L.A. Razumova, E.D. Korchagina and other. The following famous women present forest pedology: L.A. Grishina, M.N. Pershina, E.S. Migunova, E.B. Skvortsova, V.P. Firsova.

Women develop also such new lines in pedology as soil ecology and protection, soil evolution, and archeological pedology. The first line is presented by the following women: L.A. Grishina, G.V. Motuzova, A.M. Parakshina, L.N. Tashninova, L.K. Sadovnokova, L.M. Burlakova, A.I. Gagarina, N.P. Sorokina, L.S. Il'ina, T.L. Yegoshina, I.P. Breus, L.V. Rudneva, I.M. Ryzheva, K.S. Bobkova, V.S. Arzhanova, A.F. Vedrova, the second one by V.D. Vasil'evskaya, G.A. Vorob'eva, N.A. Karavaeva, N.N. Matinyan, T.D. Morozova, E.M.

Samoylova, S.A. Sycheva, L.A. Gugalinskaya, A.M. Parakshina et.al; and the third line by M.I. Dergacheva, G.V. Vorob'eva, S.A. Sycheva.

None of the lines of soil science could be developed without painstaking work of laboratory assistants, skilled grinders, talent engineers and technicians, most of which are women. Previously in pre-revolutionary period, some scientists considered necessary to point out name of an analyst in their publication. Unfortunately this tradition has been lost. However, the names of most remarkable experimenters and analysts are known.

These are E.I. Parfenova, A.M. Miasnikova, A.F. Molchanova, N.A. Pankova and many other.

Most talent women-scientists, who had also educational talent, formed their own schools of thoughts. The fact that some of them worked not in the educational, but in scientific organizations, did not occupy administrative positions and developed so called male lines of pedology soil genesis and evolution, soil reclamation and soil radioecology is especially amusing. These are Yevgenia Nikolaevna Ivanova, Nataliya Ivanovna Bazilevich, and Mariya Konstantinovna Mel'nikova.

Dozens of specialists prepared Ph.D. and doctoral theses under the guidance of E.N.