«Под общей редакцией: М. Абусеитовой, К. Исак, Л. Ерекешевой. Составители: Л. Ерекешева, А. Асадова. Составление резюме статей на англ. языке: А. Асадовой. Перевод с ...»
Discourse before and after Publication in the Journal ‘FONUS’ N7, 2005” Ms. Shahidi shared the experience of the Z. Shahidi International Cultural Foundation (NGO) whose aim is to critically re-think the experience of the previous generation in cultural and intercultural relationship for the new generation of actors in cultures via music and arts. Definition of the shortcomings of the previous generation academic thought hardly postponed integration of intercultural literary thought of Tajiks into the modern world intercultural apace.
Though the core of the literary and musical thought of Tajiks and other people of Central Asia is interculturality, it was not recognized by the national academic schools during the Soviet period. The Foundation’s activity in establishment of intercultural relations at post-soviet period and contribution in peace-building via music and culture was recognized by the highest authorities of Tajikistan when it was elected as a member of the Public Council in 1996. The legalization of the Foundation on the national level opened perspectives for international activity and prompted the establishment of the publication, journal “Fonus”, an international intercultural study for peace and development promoting interculturality as a main tool for building new partnerships regionally and globally.
The journal gives a platform for discussion and debate among leading Tajik, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Iranian, Afghan, European, and American experts in the cultural sphere on various issues and policies; moreover, it encourages contributors and readers alike to improve the situation of national contradictions through integration of contemporary discourses of the globalizing world. The long-term objective of the journal is to provide interculturality as an original and organic style of thinking of the Islamic world in its inner development.
Ms. Shahidi highlighted the issues of the First International Conference entitled “The Rights for Culture and Interculturality”, which took place in Dushanbe in September 2000 with the financial support of the Germany Embassy in Tajikistan. This event marked the first experience of the post-Soviet Tajikistan where participants from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Austria, and Germany gathered to discuss the common aspects of their cultures and the problems of cultural cooperation in the transition period. At the Conference, it was noted that the sphere of national cultures in Central Asia has been forming during the last millennium; nevertheless, despite its problems of dividing into national-administrative states, most of the cultural actors of the diverse regional cultures preserved the sense of ‘commonness’ prevalent in the last century. On the other hand, lack of legislative system on interculturality created an essential gap between policy and culture; therefore, one of the long-term projects of the Z. Shahidi Foundation is to bridge this gap and the Conference provided the mandate for its further development.
As the Chief Editor of the journal, Ms. Shahidi initiated the discussion on the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. The discussion attracted the attention of the Embassies of Afghanistan, France, and Iran and gave the Foundation an opportunity to present the project in Afghanistan (Ministry of Culture, Academy of Sciences and Center for Culture, in Kabul), France (Mason de Science de L’Homme) and Center of Iranian Culture in Dushanbe.
Moreover, the translation of the Declaration into Tajik, Farsi-Dari languages and its subsequent publication in the journal “Fonus” made it accessible to many readers. Ms. Shahidi drew attention to the fact that the Declaration has not yet been discussed in Central Asia and called the participants of the Round Table to start the process of its widespread lobbing at national legislative bodies.
Ibragimova Gaisha Coordinator, UNESCO ASP-net in Kyrgyzstan; Founder, Educational Center “Ilim-Education” (Kyrgyzstan) Ms. Ibragimova presented five abstracts on the theme “Potential of the Non-Formal Education in Kyrgyzstan in Solving Challenges of Multicultural and Multireligious Education”.
1. The processes of globalization and the importance of multicultural and multireligious education among youth. Globalization has led to a decrease in the role of people and domestic legislation in favor of international laws and processes: whereas, globalization of culture created a global culture with shared beliefs, values and ideals.
Therefore, today’s pressing challenge is the ability of institutions such as schools, families, and communities to prepare the youth who would respond to the process of globalization adequately and responsibility. The role of the UNESCO Associated Schools is to create conditions for multi-cultural and multi-religious education.
2. The concepts of “multicultural and multireligious education” include the ability of cultural dialogue at various levels. The question is which product of multicultural education (through dialogue) society would use. The diversity of cultures and religions can be viewed from different perspectives: either to find distinctions that divide or common values that unite and enrich.
3. Education and its potential. Since the process of education is not limited to educational institutions, but continues in families and communities, it is essential to develop concepts of multicultural education. In other words, there is a need to define the direction towards partnerships among schools, families, and communities and design a special model for multi-cultural and multi-religious education.
4. Competency approach in the education and upbringing. In the educational and social setting, the youth has basic competencies such as knowledge, skills, and habits of life in a multi-cultural space;
however, they must form not only functional, but social competence as well. People need cognitive abilities, positive thinking, and social skills in order to adapt to life among various cultures and religions.
Life skills and abilities allow people to consolidate their current knowledge and skills toward a successful future.
5. Experience in multicultural education and training in Kyrgyzstan. One of the good examples is the program of the UNESCO Associated Schools, which includes multicultural education for children and youth in their daily activities. In 2004, the Network of UNESCO Associated Schools carried out an assembly entitled Peace and Harmony through Dialogue among Cultures and Civilizations, where ASPnet schools demonstrated their achievements in multicultural education and training.
Kyrgyz experience also calls for an examination and synthesis of the formation of a multi-religious space since the separation of culture, customs, and traditions from religion has been a painful process.
Lack of interfaith dialogue experience among religious leaders places the responsibility in the hands of educational institutions and civil society to create various forums and interaction between religious leaders in order to increase mutual understanding and dialogue of cultures and religions.
Bilyalova Gulmira Resource Center, Aga Khan Humanities Project in Central Asia; Candidate of Philosophical Sciences; Lecturer, Department of Philosophy and Methodology Science, Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abai (Kazakhstan) In her presentation “Ethnic Memory as a Basis of Intercultural Dialogue in Central Asia: Theoretical and Practical Aspects” Professor Bilyalova stated that the ethnic memory plays an important role in intercultural dialogue, tolerance, and education in respect to other cultures. The ethnic memory is one of the bases of viability and spirituality of ethnos, ethnoodd, individuals, and nations. It is spirituality and morals, reason and humanism, which help carry out existence of human lives and society. The ethnic memory is universal through contents and consists of collective and individual conscious and unconscious, concrete historical and public paradigms, universal and local (national) components.
The ethnic memory exists on four interconnected levels: individual, national – ethnic, social, and global or universal. The individual level of ethnic memory corresponds to consciousness of ethnoodd to human or substantial essence; the evolution of ethnic consciousness is shown at the national - ethnic level; changes of national consciousness can be seen at the social level; the influence of ethnic components on globalization and modernization of the technical, information, technological, intellectual and educational processes changing the world community is observed at the universal level.
The ethnic memory as a basis of intercultural communication is expressed in:
• preservation of cultural originality of ethnoses of the world, people and communities;
• diverse and dynamical cultural system of inside ethnic culture;
• definition and preservation of personal and ethnic identity of the person, determination of culture of dialogue;
• socialization of persons and ethnic consciousness, which form principles of intercultural dialogue;
• ethnocultural and language memory which carry out functions of the communications;
• ethnic values connecting mankind and allowing to carry on dialogue of cultures;
• humanization of formations as maximum property of people; and • intercultural dialogue as a memory - duty, memory – discharge, and memory - archive.
Thus, ethnoses carry cultural ideas over centuries and transmit values through generations.
In the practical aspect, all theoretical ideas, principles, and ideas are carried out by the Aga Khan Humanities Project (AKHP) in Central Asia. AKHP with its head office in Dushanbe, Tajikistan focuses on the development of pluralism in ideas, cultures, and peoples. The project initiates and supports introduction of teaching materials, develops pedagogical and professional skills for Central Asian universities, and encourages local civil society initiatives.
Currently, among its 24 partner universities in Central Asia, AKHP disperses teaching materials based on principles of global cultural diversities and varieties inside ethnic, religious, regional, and political culture. By paying attention to modern needs and opportunities, AKHP creates bridges between communities and societies in the region, which helps Central Asian citizens to exchange not only ideas concerning traditions, but also to restore communication and mutual relations. Therefore, the purpose and task of AKHP is to give basis to intercultural communication.
Sivertsen Barbara (1) Program Director, Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief; Chairman, Norwegian Peace Alliance Group on Education for Teachers (United Kingdom /Norway) In her presentation “Good Practices: Presentation of the Oslo Coalitions Program on Teaching for Tolerance” Ms. Sivertsen pointed out that in order to achieve a fruitful dialogue, an attitude of acceptance, of curiosity, even of excitement about diversity must be in place before the process of dialogue begins. Teaching for Tolerance program is precisely about preparing each individual for the great dialogue he or she will hold with the world about them throughout their lives.
The Program is about encouraging minds to be open, about promoting curiosity about “otherness”, about celebrating differences;