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INTRODUCTION

This is an anniversary edition, which in fact presents selected works extracts from more fundamental and complete works of the author. Over the whole period of his scientific biography he had to defend autonomy and peculiarity of humanitarian discourse, while not so long ago there was a demand for works devoted to philosophical explanation of natural-science cognition and proclamation of it as a universal research method suitable for the humanities as well. Its not that nowadays things have changed for benefit of humanitarian knowledge. There is still big love for paleosauruses and mastodons and lack of philanthropy to petty beasts (F.M. Dostoyevskiy), among which the human himself appears. This just indicates the crisis in contemporary world-view. However, current social-political situation doesnt forbid to talk about it as of a private business of one or another author.

The humanities and metaphysics in form of non-classical rationality are in for a long and stubborn struggle; this struggle is in two directions: with pseudo-scientific philosophy which has lost its originality and specific character and subordinated its discourse to scientific thinking; and with physico-mathematical science. As for pseudo-scientific philosophy, a bright example of which is history and philosophy of science, it views its mission in justification of science by scientific methods of cognition. Everything here is inspired with a spirit of common and necessary knowledge. It should be mentioned that internal strife is always the most difficult one; there is hope to suppose that arguments of the mind, though having some obligatory force, are not always convincing not always rudere, lugere et destari, flere obtain their solutions in intelligere. But when they reach the highest tension and enter the last and desperate fight, they sometimes disprove and eliminate it. Philosophy is not a curious look back, not Besinnung, but a great struggle1.

As for the second direction of this struggle physico-mathematical science, we should admit that philosophy has almost no chances to win. The potential of science greatly exceeds that of philosophy; there is a special discipline in the science itself physics which occupies a unique position due to its influence on the state and level of scientific research in whole. Physics took such an exclusive position not because of its intellectual superiority, but because of social order physical knowledge is easily implemented in manufacture and provides quick comfort of life, which is so necessary to our bourgeois society. The so-called imperialism of physics appeared in such atmosphere. Imperialism of physics and Lab terrorism are such phenomena when physical methods of cognition are applied to any branch of science, irrespective of its subject field in the hope of getting brand new knowledge. Philosophers, depressed with such superiority of physics with respect to other sciences, were ashamed of being philosophers, but to be more precise, they ought to have been ashamed not to be physicistsThey decided that the only philosophical topic is contemplation on the facts of physics and that philosophy is not more than a theory of cognition2.



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